Not everyone wants to buy a ready-made house, many people find it easier, cheaper and more comfortable to build it with their own hands to make it truly versatile and individual. Read our step-by-step instructions with expert advice and everything will work out!
Living in your own home away from the hustle and bustle of the city is a conscious choice for many people. People often come to this decision because of such bright advantages as: own garden, organized barbecue area, comfortable playground in the open air, individual parking space. Therefore, to build your own house, but at the same time really comfortable and functional – an important stage in the life of any family.
Step-by-step instructions for building a house
Building a house is a complex multi-step process, over which specialists of different directions work. If you are confident in your own abilities and have extensive experience in construction, then to build a house with your own hands will help to save significantly the budget of the family. The main thing is to follow the existing algorithm of work, only in this way you can perform the construction without unnecessary mistakes.
Analyzing what to start building a house, first do a number of preparatory works, which later will affect the final appearance of the dwelling. These include: preparing a piece of land on which the future home will be erected, appeal to service organizations in order to clarify the future connection to the communications, registration of geodetic investigation by a specialized company to determine the soil structure (this will help you lay the right type of foundation without risk).
The desire to save money when building a house is not always accepted at the finish line. What to build from – depends on financial capabilities and personal preferences. Therefore, the minimum cost threshold is determined by the future owner, taking into account the current prices for materials and work. It is important to remember that the frame of the building should be strong and be able to withstand sufficiently heavy loads in different weather conditions. In addition to the external finishing of the house, funds will also be needed for interior decoration and landscaping.
In order not to increase your expenses in the future, make a visual estimate that will reflect in detail all stages of construction. Competently make an estimate will help the foreman. The exact budget will depend on the individual characteristics of the house – area, number of floors, purpose, seasonality, etc.
Typical project to date is the most ideal template that will help to begin construction and not to delay long at the stage of design work. The optimal solution would be to buy it from professional architectural and construction companies or bureaus. It is extremely important to get a complete package when purchasing a ready-made project. It should include:
architectural section, which includes detailed information about the layout, exterior finish of the building, specifications of doors and windows;
constructive section elaborated by the structural engineer which contains detailed plans of the foundation, roof, ceilings, walls and characteristic assemblies. The contractor, performing construction work, will be primarily guided by this document;
Engineering section, which contains all the information about engineering networks, namely: water supply and sewage, heating and ventilation, electricity supply.
Many people decide to use a downloaded version from the Internet, but it is often more expensive – most of the available options reflect the illiterate layout. To choose the right project for a comfortable stay of his family, guided by lifestyle and personal preferences – they will ultimately determine the parameters of the house and affect the final cost.
- Layout and configuration. In most cases, many options have complex shapes that will only make construction more expensive. Affordable in their pricing policy will be architectural projects with layouts of simple rectangular or square shape, without bay windows and ledges, as well as other expensive to perform elements. The number of organized rooms and their area should be thought out based on the number of residents or possible frequent visits of guests.
- Whether the second floor is necessary. In a two-storey house to communicate with the second floor, of course, you will need a staircase. Its presence and the choice of shape will also affect the final cost. The economical solution will be a one-story house without expensive slabs and stairs.
- The type of foundation, which will cost a more reasonable price – shallow. Its installation does not require extensive preparation.
- – The form of the roof. A gable roof, though the most standard form, but it is reliable and rational in its price. Complicated roof designs with many slopes and dormer windows will increase the cost of construction.
- Window shape. Traditional rectangular shape windows is always cheaper than custom solutions.
- Facade finish. For facade finishing you can choose an interesting plaster which not only has good characteristics of longevity, but also gives the building an aesthetic look without hitting the wallet.
- Interior finishing. A minimum of decorative elements can be used for the interior finish of the house.
- Additional rooms. They can be a built-in garage, sauna, a spacious dressing room.
Selection of materials
Materials, like all work, should be reflected in the estimate. When choosing them, prefer building and finishing materials that have a manufacturer’s certificate. So you will be sure of their quality, avoid disappointment in the exterior finish or roofing after using the house for a couple of seasons. Study the modern building materials market, read customer reviews.
Construction of the house in most cases is often delayed or temporarily suspended, due to the winter period. That is why most of the materials are bought in reserve and store them properly, otherwise their quality can suffer. This condition above all applies to wooden structures, bricks and dry mixes.
There are several types of houses:
Frame – fast construction, consisting of a wooden frame and insulation, as well as external and internal finishing. This option is considered one of the most budget-friendly, while having weak characteristics of durability and strength. Such a house is poorly able to withstand dynamic loads, so if you install a washing machine, it will be necessary to erect a separate foundation under it. This type of house is not suitable for use for decades, because it does not have the proper capital.
Log house is a wooden frame, the walls of which are assembled from treated logs. In turn, each log has a corner joint and groove, which allows convenient and very fast to build a house. This type is characterized by more durable characteristics. Both in hot and in cold seasons inside this type of house there is always a favorable microclimate. It is not difficult to heat, and you will not need a heavy, buried foundation. However, the susceptibility of wood to combustion and attack of vermin is a significant disadvantage.
Brick, aerated concrete – stone structure, the enclosing structures (walls) which are made of ceramic bricks or aerated concrete blocks. Brick is considered environmentally friendly and non-combustible. It also has reliability and durability, good resistance to various weather conditions. However, compared to the log house, it will require a strong foundation. Aerated concrete type of house, too, in turn, will be durable and reliable option, and compared to the brick, under its walls, you can build a shallow or pole foundation (only if you are planning a one-story house).
Monolithic, reinforced concrete – solid construction, the walls and slabs which serves concrete, initially poured in the formwork. The frame of this type of house is the most durable and can withstand heavy loads. Also the advantage of this type of construction is the possibility of creating a house of any configuration, the use of free planning, rapid construction. For it is suitable for a lightweight type of foundation, all concrete work will cost more profitable (as monolithic work can be performed by one contractor).
What work will need to be done when building a house
Before starting construction work on the site, you need to think about the organization of access roads and storage of building materials, put up a fence, make a supply of water and electricity, as well as install a temporary toilet and organize a place for garbage. In accordance with fire and sanitary standards, the axes of the building must be made to the site. From the boundaries of the site, where there is no roadway, you need to indent at least 3 m on each side, where it is – at least 5 m. The process of erecting a house is quite time consuming and consists of consecutive steps.
Foundation and excavation work
The conclusion of the sewage system and the place of entry of the water pipe should be carried out before pouring the foundation itself. Trenches are specially dug for them, then the pipes are laid and insulated. Then the foundation is laid by arranging an excavation, on the bottom of which a cushion of crushed stone is laid. For pouring the foundation under the walls of the future house, a formwork is used. The monolithic type of foundation is considered the best and more budgetary option in the construction of private houses.
There are different types of foundations, each of which has its own differences in the technology of pouring and nuances. The following factors will help to choose the right type of foundation:
- Soil category – the most important factor that determines in the future the bearing capacity of this foundation.
- Location of groundwater – if there is a close location of groundwater on the site, it will be necessary to organize a drainage system, since they can exert significant pressure on the foundation walls.
- Frosted ground level – will help to determine the depth of laying the foundation.
- The topography and seismic activity of the construction region – the main task of these two factors is to ensure a level ground for the future foundation and to exclude the impact of soil fluctuations on the building.
- Presence of basement – often the area under the house itself is used, for example, as a cellar for household needs or an underground garage, so the foundation should be reliable, simultaneously performing its direct purpose and function of the walls for the arranged premises.
- Types of loads – the statistical load of the house is determined by the floor, the weight of all the furniture, plumbing, equipment, etc. This is exactly what will continuously and continuously affect the foundation.
- Presence of underground utilities – construction standards regulate the minimum distance from the future foundation to underground utilities.
Brick, bar – this type of foundation is able to withstand only the load of the lightest structures, so it is suitable for a gazebo, bathhouse, greenhouse or summer house.
Pillar type – this type implies installation of supporting pillars under the key nodes of the future home. It is also suitable for light buildings, and is often used in areas where the soil is subject to shifting. However, a significant disadvantage of this type of foundation is the lack of organization of the basement.
Pile foundation is rarely used for private construction, because, having perfect stability, it is more in demand for the erection of more solid, heavy buildings. The design is a column with sharpened ends, which are applicable if the ground on the site is mobile or groundwater is close.
Pile and screw – this is a variation of the pile type, but differs in the material of the pile posts. In this version, instead of concrete, metal ones are used, which are screwed into the ground, and the rostrum is mounted on top. Suitable for areas with uneven terrain and problematic soil.
Ribbon foundation is one of the common types of foundations in the construction of private houses. Its base is a closed band along the contour. Popularity is explained by such advantages as high load-carrying capacity, uncomplicated technology of erection, controllable depth of deposition, which allows to evenly distribute the load of the whole house on the ground.
Band, shallow-depth – a kind of band form, which also allows you to get a quality base for the walls of the future home, but this will require less financial investment than if you build a strip.
Monolithic – is the most expensive of all options for the cost of materials and works, but has the reliability and durability for decades. The choice in its favor is obvious when the soil on the site is mobile (peaty or marshy, heaving or floating soil). This type of foundation is not set at the depth of freezing, but can withstand considerable loads due to its unique ability to move with the soil.
The mandatory requirement for the filling of most types of foundations is considered to be the reinforcement. Only after the installation of reinforcement is the concrete poured. Do not forget that the foundation should stand for some time (this condition depends on the type) and gain the necessary strength, only then can you proceed to the construction of walls.
It is necessary to erect the outer and inner walls at the same time. This way the load on the foundation will be evenly distributed. The cost of work on their construction is 40% of the cost of all planned work. Therefore, it is necessary to treat the choice of material with caution, so as not to suffer serious expenses in the future. Determine the material from which to build the walls will help the following factors:
The cost of the material – can significantly reduce if you choose a lightweight version for the walls. For example, the frame type fully meets this segment. In this case, it will not even be necessary to organize a powerful and expensive foundation.
Thermal insulation is an important condition, which is also worth taking care of. After all, cold walls in winter will cost you significantly more. Make a calculation and pay attention to the climatic conditions where you plan to build your house. Modern insulation will always help to achieve the desired result, because they have good insulating properties.
Labor costs – a labor-intensive process of erecting walls can be adjusted slightly, if the walls are not made of small pieces of material, but, for example, of large blocks or frame-panel elements. In this way the construction process will be easier and faster.
Exterior finishing costs – among the many modern building materials there are those that will not require you to finish the walls additionally, so this condition will help to save time and money.
In today’s construction market there are many types of suitable materials for walls, in addition, each of them has its own characteristics, which will allow us to judge the advantages and disadvantages.
Ceramic and silicate bricks are quite a heavy material for walls and have good strength and environmental characteristics. It is resistant to various weather conditions and looks aesthetically expensive. Ceramic and sand-lime bricks come in corpulent and hollow. Because of the clever holes its thermal insulation properties only improve.
Ceramic block – one of the durable materials for the erection of walls. You can build a house from it quite cheaply and quickly. The dimensions of ceramic block can be different, but its height is equal to the size of a brick masonry, so you can build on the draft of a brick house. Also, this material is frost-resistant and fire-resistant. However, it is quite fragile, so it must be carefully transported and stored.
Aerated concrete (aerated concrete and aerated concrete) – one of the most promising materials for the construction of walls of private houses, which are used for permanent residence. Aerated concrete and foam concrete have virtually the same good characteristics as bricks or ceramic block, creating a favorable microclimate in any room. They differ from each other only in manufacturing technology. The pluses also include durability, non-combustibility, environmental friendliness, resistance to low temperatures, ease of installation, light weight. The level of permeability of the house of aerated concrete can be compared to a house built of wood.
Cylindrical log (log house) – a traditional variant of the material for the construction of houses of former Russia. Environmentally friendly, has good insulation properties, actually does not require external and internal finishing, it requires a light foundation. But there are also disadvantages: wood is combustible material, prone to rot, fungus and pests, so it will require regular maintenance, in addition the shrinkage of the house is considered problematic.
Laminated veneer lumber – from the category of wood as a material for the walls of the future home, the best option. This material is created by different technology, so it is not subject to shrinkage and, accordingly, will be more expensive. Also of the advantages is the lack of need for external and internal finishing of the walls, you can only use a special paint and a beautiful aesthetic view of the house is ensured. However, the house made of this material can not be considered energy efficient, due to insufficient thermal resistance. It is reasonable to choose a glued profiled bar, if the main gas is used for heating the house.
A frame house is a more budget-friendly option, from which the walls of the house can be erected. The basis of the construction of this type is a frame made of wood and metal. Such houses are characterized by low weight, the highest speed of assembly, significant thermal insulation properties. Of the disadvantages are the increased labor intensity at the finishing stage of the outer finishing, such a house will last less than the brick one, the layout is usually the most standard.
Thus, considering the above building materials, focus on the duration of their operation – for a long-term and comfortable perspective, houses built of cellular concrete (aerated concrete) or brick are ideal. A frame house is an alternative option when financial possibilities are limited, but it is possible to find a really warm and modern house.
When the frame of the house is finally installed, you can move on to the final stage of construction – the installation of the roof. The roof structure is also one of the main and important parts of any building, so it must reliably protect against different weather conditions. According to the house project and the material chosen, methods of installation of the roof may vary. Different types of roofs, above all, differ in design features and shapes.
Single pitch – the easiest type of roof on its installation, so its construction can be done with their own hands. Such a roof is often set on a household outbuilding or garage, when the two walls are of different heights. The erection of this type on residential buildings is rarely used.
Gable – the most common type of roof, which is ideal for smaller homes. Despite its simplicity, it is reliable and durable: the connection of two symmetrical slopes, the distribution of loads on the walls and roof bolster is uniform. In addition, for the coverage of this roof is suitable for any roofing material. Of the disadvantages can be attributed to the impossibility of creating a full-fledged attic floor.
Four-slope – folded in a common point of the vertices of the four triangles (forming slopes), which can be different in shape. Such a roof is highly resistant to various atmospheric phenomena, with its help you can realize original ideas, thus giving the appearance of the house architectural sophistication. The disadvantages are: the complexity of the implementation of this design (will require professionals), the substantial weight of the roof structure (requires strengthening of building envelopes), high consumption of roofing materials.
Mansard – this type of roof is in demand when there is a question about increasing the living area of a private house. The design of the mansard roof is arranged in such a way as to allow the full use of the resulting space as a living space. The advantages of this type of roof can also include: an adequate value of its implementation, good insulation received inside the living space, a small load on the foundation, gives the external appearance of the house a special flavor. Of the disadvantages – time-consuming process of installation of the rafter system because of the broken profile.
Waltz – formed with the help of slopes, two of which have a trapezoidal shape, and the other two – a triangular. This design allows you to steadily absorb wind loads, so the hip roof will be a good solution for regions with difficult climates.
Mnogoschiptsovaya – a complex design for its performance, often erected on the houses of the elite class, which have a complex configuration. As the cover multi-cell roof can be used any roofing materials.
Based on the finished design of the house, the choice of a suitable type of roof is closely related to the purchase of roofing material for the future coverage. Each material has its own nuances and requirements for the rafter system. It is important to consider the load the roof will have on the walls and foundation, labor costs for the work. The following roofing materials have proven themselves in the construction market:
Ceramic tiles – a relatively heavy and expensive material, but will serve faithfully for many decades. It has good noise insulation, water resistance, resistance to different temperatures, low thermal conductivity and elegant appearance.
Asbestos-cement slate – the pluses of the material are ease of installation, resistance to different weather conditions, durability, high water resistance, anti-corrosion. Of the disadvantages: the appearance, which, in comparison with other materials, is not distinguished by aesthetics, as well as this slate does not belong to the environmental materials.
Euro slate (ondulin) – among roofing materials, it is considered a budget option, which is easy to install. At the same time, it has a little more disadvantages: it does not breathe, unstable, has a limited lifespan, when heated evaporates carcinogens.
Metal – this tile will last long enough, because the metal from which it is made, coated with a layer of polymer, which allows it to withstand all weather conditions. The pluses of the material can also include: a reasonable price, a wide range of colors, which will allow maximum harmony to emphasize the look of the house, not flammability. Of the disadvantages: the material reflects noise during rain, it does not breathe, with a complex design of the roof increases consumption of the material.
Bitumen (soft) shingles – a relatively new material that is increasingly being used to cover the roof. Such a roof can mimic ceramic tiles, slate or chips, which gives the roof of natural color. Among the advantages are also: durability, variety of shapes and colors. The disadvantages include the high cost of mounting work, low strength, the material does not breathe, can release carcinogens.
Cement-sand tiles – a natural roofing material, which in addition is affordable. In this case, care for the coating will not be a burden for the homeowner, the material allows you to easily wash away accumulated dirt. Also to the positive nuances include: durability, resistance to different temperatures, a variety of forms, good soundproofing. Of the disadvantages: the material is quite heavy, so the cost of work on its laying will be higher than that of other analogues.
Important! At the stage of construction of the roof is the installation of the drainage system. In most cases, outdoor systems made of plastic or metal are used. But in some cases, the project may require an internal drain.
After the construction of the roof, it is necessary to proceed to the installation of windows and exterior doors. Optimally, choose metal-plastic windows and a metal entrance door. A more budget option is considered traditional wood.
Next, you can proceed to the insulation of the walls of the house. It will be necessary to insulate both the outside and the inside. The choice of material as an insulator is limited only by personal preferences and financial capabilities. For the inner side of the walls as insulation, materials such as gypsum board and mineral wool will be suitable. Exterior walls, for example, can be insulated with facade tiles. It will also be necessary to insulate the floor of the first floor and the roof (attic floor).
Installation of the balcony and stairs, if they are laid out in the project, is the next step.
After all this is done, the exterior of the house can be completed according to the design project. This may include work on the installation of friezes, decorative plumbings or strips, soffits, hemming roof overhangs, waterproofing device for possible terraces or balconies.
Once the conceived image of the house becomes more and more reliable and similar to your dream, you can move on to the internal works. At this stage, the façade and roof are fully completed, so the interior of the house is protected from the effects of the weather. Plan to perform the following works: placement of plumbing and sewage.
Before starting the work, make a scheme of distributing the drainage system. The main thing that should be taken into account in the design: the number of residents, the expected technology of sewage treatment, the layout of lines of external drainage, as well as internal collection and disposal of waste water. These criteria will help to correctly calculate the number of system components and the meterage of sewer pipes. Polypropylene pipes are now used as a material, which are lightweight, operational properties and affordable price. However, without specialists and knowledge of established standards, it is difficult to build a quality sewage system.
Begin the construction of the sewer system should begin with the external network. To do this, analyze the distance from the existing observation well to the external network. According to the regulations, if the length is more than 12 meters, you will need to install an additional well. For the laying of external sewer pipes also use polymer pipes, but taking into account the seasonal freezing will require insulation.
For a single-storey house, according to the standards of distribution, the plumbing appliances in the kitchen and sanitary unit are close to the external point of sewage outlet. Therefore, the wall separating these rooms will be the location for the riser pipe. The lower point of the riser-pipe shall be directed to the outside mains, and the upper one shall be directed to the roof.
For a detached house with two or three floors, it is typical to arrange a few household and technical areas. Therefore, the distribution of sewage will be more complex compared to a single-storey house. According to existing codes and regulations, the location of the sanitary unit must be at a single vertical level, that is, one above the other. Pipeline stack, designed for ventilation and sanitation, is passed through all the available floors and led to the roof, taking into account the additional rise, in case it is formed by slopes. Only in the final stage of installation and verification of connecting plumbing fixtures.
At this stage, wires are laid in the walls, but their connection to the devices is not carried out. This will allow you in the future, when finishing the interior walls, once again to check and correct possible omitted nuances.
For the work in advance it will be necessary to make a detailed scheme of power supply, which will clearly reflect the number of sources and how they are included in the chain of electrical consumption. Also, based on future planning decisions, you will need a wiring diagram that allows you to calculate the consumables and determine the location of major devices – wires, outlets, switches, light fixtures, fuses, meters, junction boxes, etc. Do not forget: to ensure that all appliances, light sources and power equipment perform their work as efficiently and safely as possible, you need to calculate the total power consumption. Their values can be viewed in the technical data sheets of devices or use the Internet. In accordance with them, select the wires of the required cross-section.
The initial stage of work on the power supply of the house is considered the installation of the switchboard. On it, too, should be previously developed a separate scheme. To improve reliability, consumers are divided into separate groups of connection points: lighting, socket outlets, power elements (boiler, washing machine), household items, addressed to the basement or garage. Then comes the installation of cable lines, switching junction boxes, laying the lines of low-current networks (TV, Internet, telephony), installing sockets. After that you can
Connection of the utilities is carried out in accordance with the engineering design and approval of the organization, whose networks will be used as a connection. Once the connection has been approved, the supplying organization will conclude a contract with you.
Connecting the water supply is considered one of the most unproblematic and fastest, because central water supply systems are provided almost everywhere. Water supply can be central and water disposal autonomous. Also, these two systems can be autonomous at the same time – this condition will depend on the choice of the owner, according to his personal preferences and financial capabilities. It is worth remembering that the water supply is closely linked with the heating, the installation and connection of which requires mandatory coordination. In this case, to heat water and heat the house you can use electricity or gas, which is a more rational option. Therefore, initially prepare and find out whether there is an opportunity to conduct gas to the house, in order to use it as heating in the future.
The difficulty in connecting the electricity supply arises when the location of the house is quite distant from the main distribution sources. The same goes for the gas connection when the distance from the house to the main gas supply line is too far.
Having completed the basic stages of the construction of the house, you can proceed to the interior decoration of the premises. For this work, an interior design project will be required. Upon reaching this stage, you can use the services of a designer, or you can perform it yourself, having the necessary knowledge and accurate understanding of the future picture.
Before you start the finishing work, install partitions, according to the planning decision. They can be made of different material, but most often they are erected from gypsum board. It is attached to a prefabricated frame made of aluminum profiles. Then, depending on the selected material from which the partition walls are constructed, aesthetic design in the form of caulking, alignment of the wall surface, as well as finishing window and door soffits will be required. The next step will be work on the floor screed.
After that, proceed to the installation of the ceilings. If it is a stretch ceiling, then restricted to the tabs, the stretching of the cloth itself will be at the final stages. In the case of installation of the ceiling of plasterboard, to carry out all the steps necessary to paint it. Paint the ceiling of gypsum plasterboard is necessary after preparing the walls for painting or wallpaper, but before the walls will be applied to the final coating.
Depending on the preferred finish of the walls, whether it will be wallpaper or paint, it is necessary to make the appropriate preparation of the surfaces. In no case should you neglect the primer. After that, make the final leveling of the floor under the final laying of the coating, usually for this purpose is used filler floor. If you do this work in this sequence, you will maintain a neat and pristine appearance of the future floor. After, if necessary, if the ceiling is made of gypsum plasterboard, it is worth to make the painting of the ceiling, then – the walls, or wallpaper pasting. The work performed allows you to proceed to the works on laying the floor finish. The technology of the chosen laying material may vary, it all depends on personal preferences. The next step – the final installation of electrical, connect power to switches, sockets and light fixtures. Install plumbing fixtures and other necessary accessories. Radiators for heating are installed, the furniture is arranged.